Table 1.

Tree health indicators used for visual rank assessment (Shibata 2007).

IndicatorsAbbreviationRank 1Rank 2Rank 3Rank 4
Tree vigorTvgvigorous growthslight decline in vigor (not conspicuous)clear decline in vigorclearly poor growth state and no prospect of recovery
Tree formTfmmaintenance of the natural tree formslight loss of the natural tree form (not conspicuous)conspicuous loss of the natural tree formcomplete loss of the natural tree form
Branch growthBgrnormal (≥ 30 cm at the top)slightly less than rank 1new branches are short and thinnew branches are extremely short
Crown diebackCdbno diebackslight dieback (not conspicuous)conspicuous dieback or cuttingssevere dieback or cutting
Crown densityCrdclosed crown and high density of branches and leavesslightly less than rank 1distinct porosity with sparse branches and leavesmany dead branches, poor leaf development, and very sparse crown
Leaf shape and sizeLshnormalfew deformed or small leavesdeformed leaves or generally small leavesmany deformed leaves or conspicuously small leaves
Leaf colorLclnormalfew pale leaves or diseased leavesabnormal (many pale leaves or diseased leaves)conspicuously abnormal leaves
Bark conditionBrkactive thickening growth and active bark regenerationnormalold bark, no bark regeneration, or damagevery old bark, distinct damage, or decay