Parameter | Fixed effect | Value ± SD | P |
---|---|---|---|

a | Intercept | 4.49 ± 0.27 | < 0.001 |

distance_{ij} | Distance to obstacle | 0.001 ± 0.004 | < 0.001 |

directionN_{ij} | Direction N | −0.08 ± 0.06 | 0.01 |

directionNE_{ij} | Direction NE | −0.002 ± 0.06 | 0.06 |

directionNW_{ij} | Direction NW | −0.13 ± 0.06 | 0.06 |

directionS_{ij} | Direction S | 0.10 ± 0.06 | 0.06 |

directionSE_{ij} | Direction SE | 0.14 ± 0.06 | 0.06 |

directionSW_{ij} | Direction SW | −0.001 ± 0.06 | 0.06 |

directionW_{ij} | Direction W | −0.18 ± 0.06 | 0.06 |

Random effect d_{ij} | 0.31 | - | |

ε | 0.10 | - |

Levels of direction: 8 (E, N, NE, NW, S, SE, SW, W).

SD (standard deviation).