Table 2.

(experiment 1) Prevention of salt (NaCI)-induced damage by prior application of sucrose based on necrosis, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophylls, and carotenoids of containerized Ilex aquifolium L. at day 15 under outdoor conditions.

Carotenoids (c)Xanthophylls (x)Total carotenoids (x + c)
TreatmentLeaf necrosisPIChlorophyll a/bTotal chlorophyllsLuteinβ-caroteneNeoxanthinα-caroteneZeaxanthinAntheraxanthinViolaxanthin
30 g NaCl3.4 cd4.01 b3.32 a60.4 ab  77 a14 a36 a3 b31 ab  7 a16 bc184 a
60 g NaCl4.0 d2.17 a3.45 a53.8 a  74 a12 a30 a2 a35 ab  6 a12 ab171 a
Sucrose 25 g + 30 g NaCl1.3 a5.38 bc3.22 a75.6 bc152 c41 c53 bc8 e46 c18 b41 e359 b
Sucrose 25 g + 60 g NaCl2.8 bcd6.01 cd3.28 a74.3 bc120 b22 b51 b5 c39 bc19 b  9 a265 ab
Sucrose 50 g + 30 g NaCl2.5 abc6.67 cd3.33 a82.9 c131 bc25 b64 c6 d27 a20 b20 c293 b
Sucrose 50 g + 60 g NaCl2.1 ab7.02 d3.31 a70.1 abc124 bc23 b57 bc6 d32 ab16 b32 d290 b
LSD1.291.4471.0618.1  30.8  4.911.90.910.5  4.8  6.1  94.4
  • PI, chlorophylls, carotenoids, and xanthophylls values mean of six trees, five leaves per tree, leaf necrosis values mean of six trees. Means followed by different letters demonstrate a significant difference at P < 0.05 according to Fisher protected LSD test. LSD = least significant difference. Leaf chlorophyll content μg/g fresh leaf weight). Leaf carotenoids and xanthophylls content μg/g × 10−2 fresh leaf weight).