Table 4.

Treatment descriptions for stone-soil systems in 2006 planted dry down and field-testing in Ithaca, NY, U.S. Density and free drainage moisture were tested in both compaction testing and the plant dry down study at the aggregate treatment level in oneway ANOVA at a = 0.05 and were significant P < 0.001. Soil alone was not tested, but shown for illustration in compaction testing.

Isolated component testing
Aggregate Gs2.661.44 (from supplier)
Compacted aggregate (Mg m−3)1.750.92
Compacted porosity (m3/m3)34%36%
Soil Gs2.672.67
Compaction testing:Gravel-baseStalite-baseSoil
n = 5SystemSystemAlone
Compacted density (Mg m−3)1.97±0.0051.16±0.0051.76±0.005
Replicate volume (m3)0.002620.002620.00262
Total compacted porosity (m3/m3)26%27%34%
Free Drain Moisture (m3/m3)17.9%±0.8519.7%±0.7033.26±0.05
Observed gravitational porosity8%7.3%0.74%
Free drain as % of total porosity30.9%27%2.2%
Plant dry down studyGravel-baseStalite-base
n = 15SystemSystem
Compacted density (Mg m−3)2.04 (±0.01)1.28 (±0.01)
Replicate volume (m3)0.005240.00524
Gravitational drainage moisture* (m3/m3)0.116±0.0020.158±0.003
Dry endpoint moisture** (m3/m3 @ 1500 kPa matric tension)0.046±0.0020.060±0.002
Plant Available Moisture7.0%9.8%
Infiltration field measureGravel-baseStalite-baseSoil
n = 3SystemSystemAlone
Field density (Mg m−3)1.980.801.78
Infiltration rate (cm hr−1)>60>601.24
  • * Moisture content and Standard Error of mean derived from initial data measures after 9 hours free drainage.

  • **Moisture content and Standard Error of model fit values derived from predicted values (a = 0.05) in simple linear regression (Minitab 14) using negative natural log transformed matric tension and volumetric moisture data.