Table 1.

Lean frequency (percent leaning) and average lean (centimeters off plumb) observed in three tree species: Whitespire birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica ‘Whitespire’), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and Snowdrift crabapple (Malus × ‘Snowdrift’), planted at four depths in nursery containers over the course of 17 weeks.

Betula platyphylla var. japonica ‘Whitespire’Fraxinus pennsylvanicaMalus × ‘Snowdrift’
Planting depthLean frequency (%)Average lean (cm)Lean frequency (%)Average lean (cm)Lean frequency(%)Average lean (cm)
0 cm81.2azy2.8a69.2a1.7a63.1a1.4a
5 cm57.6a1.5ab70.2a1.6a63.1a1.4a
10 cm65.9a1.7ab67.5a1.4a56.1a1.3a
15 cm65.1a1.4b68.6a1.6a46.1a0.9a
  • zWithin species values with the same letter are not significantly different (P < 0.05).

  • yValues are a mean of three subsamples and five replicates measured weekly over the course of 17 weeks (n = 5).