Table 6.

Spending benchmarks from previous studies compared to the current study. Dollars per capita adjusted for inflation and percent of total city budget as reported. All currency in USD$.

LiteratureYear conductedScope$ per capita (2012 dollars)% of total city budget (reported)
Ottman and Kielbaso (1976)1974Nationwide$7.590.54%
Giedraitis and Kielbaso (1982)1980Nationwide$6.100.81%
Kielbaso et al. (1988)1986Nationwide$5.450.49%
Tschantz and Sacamano (1995)1994Nationwide$3.860.31%
Current survey of Texas2013Texas$4.880.48%