Root remediation at planting | Mulch 7 cm deep over root ball | % trunk circled 5 years after planting^{z} | Total straight^{y} root CSA (cm^{2}) | Depth of straight^{y} roots (cm) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Yes | Yes | 25 b^{x} | 45 a | 13 b |

No | 7 c | 59 a | 14 b | |

No | Yes | 69 a | 45 a | 22 a |

No | 83 a | 22 b | 15 b |

↵

^{z}Percentage of trunk circumference circled with roots > 5 mm diameter.↵

^{y}Straight = root segment just beyond the root ball oriented < 60 degrees in either compass direction compared to azimuth of parent root inside root ball; depth measured 10 cm outside root ball.↵

^{x}Means followed by a different letter within columns are statistically different at*P*= 0.002, 0.006, and 0.01 left to right, respectively; n = 10, averaged over nursery planting depth due to insignificant interaction with nursery planting depth (*P*> 0.18).