Root pruning^{z} | % trees graded as cull at #3 container position^{y} | % trees with roots >5 mm diameter over root collar within #3 container dimensions | Diameter five largest roots at #3 container position (mm)^{x} | Diameter of five largest roots on northern periphery of #15 root ball (mm)^{w} | Diameter of five largest roots on southern periphery of #15 root ball (mm)^{w} | % of five largest roots at #3 container position in the top half of root ball that either^{v} | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Circled | Ascended | ||||||

None | 78 a^{u} | 48 a | 12.7 a | 4.5 b | 4.2 b | 40 a | 6 a |

Shaved | 23 b | 27 b | 6.9 b | 6.0 a | 5.2 a | 18 b | 1 b |

↵

^{z}Shaving removed the outer 3 cm of the root ball periphery and bottom. Trees in #3 and 15 containers for 7 and 9 months, respectively.↵

^{y}Based on roots in the top 5 cm of root ball according to*Florida Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants*(Anonymous 2015); a cull occurs when there is one (or more) root greater than one-tenth the trunk diameter in the top half of the root ball growing more than one-third around the root ball.↵

^{x}Roots measured at the position of the #3 container, before descending, circling, kinking, ascending, or growing straight into #15 substrate.↵

^{w}Roots in the outer 3 cm in the north or south 180 degree circumference of root ball.↵

^{v}Percentage (54%) descending plus kinked roots was not changed by root pruning.↵

^{u}Means in a column with a different letter are statistically different at*P*< 0.01; n = 40, averaged across eight container types due to insignificant interaction (*P*> 0.07).