Table 2.

Major factors affecting tree stability (after Coder 2010).

FactorAttributes to resist windthrow
SoilSoil must resist fracture and remain dryer than its plastic limit
Windward rootsLongest 2–3 major windward roots must resist pulling out and breaking in tension; they must resist snapping in sheer
Mass of treeWeight of the tree, including both aboveground mass and root plate mass, must be sufficiently great
Leeward rootsLeeward roots must resist buckling or hinging in compression and snapping in sheer
Root plateStem base and large roots must provide a wide stiff supporting platform that resists splitting