Table 1.

Major root failure patterns (Norris 2005; Coder 2010).

Failure patternEffect on root systemConsequence
Type 1A straight root is pulled directly from the soilSudden failure as frictional forces between soil and tapered root are exceeded
Type 2A lateral root with many small lateral roots pulledSlower failure as there is a gradual failure after a major force is applied as small lateral roots progressively break
Type 3Major branched roots are pulledFailure occurs in abrupt steps as major root components break