Table 1.

Research indicators and affecting items that have been considered in the questionnaires.

PerceptualPositive stimulation of the sense of sight (natural forms and elements in landscape or natural attractions)PCP1 & PCP2Velarde et al. 2007; Grinde and Patil 2009; Cameron et al. 2020; Kolokotsa et al. 2020; Russo and Andreucci 2023Psychological well-being: decrease depression, dejection, anger, aggression, frustration, hostility, and stress, and increase creativity, happiness, calmness, comfort, refreshment, vitality, and vigorKaplan and Kaplan 1989a, 1989b; Morita et al. 2007; Sugiyama et al. 2008; Nisbet et al. 2011; Kamitsis and Francis 2013; MacKerron and Mourato 2013; Lee et al. 2014; Tyrväinen et al. 2014
Positive stimulation of the sense of smell (aromatic plant species)PCP3 & PCP4Arslan et al. 2018; Jiang et al. 2021
Positive stimulation of the sense of hearing (sound-scape: the rustling of leaves, the sound of birds and water)PCP5 & PCP6Gascon et al. 2017; White et al. 2020
Sense of security and surveillance (proper lighting at night)PCP7 & PCP8Karimi et al. 2022; Kimic and Polko 2022
Sense of belonging to a place (use of native plants and local symbols)PCP9 & PCP10Horwitz et al. 2001; Hausmann et al. 2016
VisualBiodiversity (diversity of plants and animals)VIS1 & VIS2Sandifer et al. 2015; Marselle et al. 2019; Cameron et al. 2020; Marselle et al. 2021
Lighting quality (continuous and regular lighting)VIS3 & VIS4Bahriny and Bell 2020; Karimi et al. 2022; Kimic and Polko 2022
Legibility and continuity of space (legible and attractive space without confusion)VIS5 & VIS6Sullivan and Chang 2011; Razmara et al. 2021; Azizkhani 2022
Variety of plants (diversity and attractiveness in the color and form of different plants)VIS7 & VIS8Muratet et al. 2015; Southon et al. 2018; Wood et al. 2018
FunctionalPlatform for social interactions (existence of gathering places for social interactions)FNC1 & FNC2Jennings and Bamkole 2019; Enssle and Kabisch 2020Reduced blood pressure and cortisol levels; reduced stress/less stress-related illness/improved physiological functioning; reduced pulse/heart rate; reduced obesityMoore et al. 1982; Thompson et al. 2012; Loreau and de Mazancourt 2013; Tsunetsugu et al. 2013; Astell-Burt et al. 2014; Lee et al. 2014; Song et al. 2014
Physical activity (platforms for sports activities and walking)FNC3 & FNC4Guite et al. 2006; Liu et al. 2017; Han and Hyun 2019; Kolokotsa et al. 2020; Coventry et al. 2021
Justice of age groups (facilities and entertainment for all age groups)FNC5 & FNC6Steigen et al. 2018; Kolokotsa et al. 2020
Gender justice (accessible and usable green space for all groups of people)FNC7 & FNC8Li et al. 2020; Kato-Huerta and Geneletti 2022; Sillman et al. 2022; Rahimi et al. 2023