Table 4. Sturdiness (caliper/height) of trees grown for the first 2 years at Root’s Nursery in 9-cm (3.5-in.) shelters and at Nittany Trees in 9- and 18-cm (3.5- and 7-in.) shelters, compared to trees grown all 4 years without shelters (percentage of control).
Species, cultivarYears:SturdinessPercent
Root’s Nursery, 9 cm
Acer griseum0.070.130.15455475
Cercis canadensis0.090.170.21557485
Cornus ‘Celestial’
Malus ‘Adirondack’
Magnolia ‘Merrill’
Magnolia stellata0.090.160.20385474
Syringa ‘Summer Snow’
Nittany Trees, 9 cm
Carpinus caroliniana0.050.070.10694457
Cornus ‘Celestial’
Cornus ‘Constellation’
Magnolia stellata0.110.080.12964562
Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’
Prunus subhirtella autumnalis0.070.090.151015481
Nittany Trees, 18 cm
Carpinus caroliniana0.060.080.11805259
Cornus ‘Celestial’
Cornus ‘Constellation’
Magnolia stellata0.090.090.16795383
Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’
Prunus subhirtella autumnalis0.070.170.191045984
  • Metric equivalents: 1 ft = 30.5 cm.