Table 1

Branch and stem diameters and distal distribution of dye from the injection sites beneath or somewhat outside the shoulder of the branch

GenusStem diameter (mm)Branch diameter (mm)Ratio of shoulder width to branch diameterNumber of iniection sites from which dve moved
Proximal sites1Lateral sites2Below shoulder3Beyond shoulder4
Into branchInto branchInto branch and stemInto stemInto branchNot into branchInto branchNot into branch
Acer saccharum15.99.31.4216961711849
Fraxinus pennsylvanica18.39.51.361611516155111
Gleditsia triacanthos23.112.81.46161181317528
Juglans nigra22.713.01.341611615151025
Liriodendron tulipifera19.411.41.43161571022406
Malus sargentii19.410.81.57161251511669
Tilia americana25.715.91.37161551219715
Ulmus procera21.612.71.46169617131126
  • 1 Distribution from all 16 proximal sites (2 sites/date, 8 dates)

  • 2 Distribution from all 32 lateral sites (4 sites/date, 8 dates)

  • 3 Distribution from those lateral sites beneath the shoulder (0.5 to 1.5 times branch diameter)

  • 4 Distribution from those sites outside of the shoulder (>1.5 times the branch diameter)