Table 1.

Acceptance of injected water by stems and roots of 14 tree species in autumn and summer as related to wood porosity.

Tree speciesTrunk diameter range (cm)ainjection rate ± SObInjection rate in roots ÷ rate in stemsWood porosity indexc
  Tilia americana35-70I64±77188±970.80.914.0
Cockspur hawthorn
  Crataegus crus-galli20-50200±69107±840.80.412.0d
Black cherry
  Prunus serotina25-70227±7843±170.70.610.6
American Elm
  Ulmus americana16-25108±4887±451.10.910.8
American beech
  Fagus grandifolia26-55107±3086±
Red oak
  Quercus rubra40-90116±5645±431.60.42.6
Black birch
  Betula lenta15-4288±5963±
White oak
  Quercus alba40-5091 ±4522±
Sugar maple
  Acer saccharum45-6032±1331 ±
Black locust
  Robinia pseudoacacia25-3827±241 ±0.11.2e3.0
White ash
  Fraxinus americana20-408± 73± 1ee1.9
  Juglans cinerea21-384e4±3ee2.0
Shagbark hickory
  Carya ovata21-280ee1.6
Eastern white pine
  Pinus strobus26-6001±0.1eef
  • a Diameter 1.4 m above soil line.

  • b ml/min/injection hole at 0.7 kg/cm2; avg. of stem plus root injections; 5 trees per species; ± standard deviation.

  • c lndex ≈ specific gravity of green wood-1 X relative frequency of pores in cross section; data from Panshin et al. (1964), whose frequency terms were converted to numbers where “very few” = 1 and “very numerous” = 6.

  • d Data for index provided by authors.

  • e Data too few or volumes too small to justify calculation.

  • f Index can not be calculated for gymnosperm woods.